Bone marrow is sponge, soft material which is found inside the bones. It consists of immature cells which are blood-forming stem cells or hematopoietic cells. These cell increase their count by dividing themselves and on maturing turns into either of three types that White Blood Cells (which protect body), Red Blood Cells (which carry oxygen) and Platelets (which helps in blood clotting). Hematopoietic stem cells are mostly found in the bone marrow.
In bone marrow transplant, the hematopoietic stem cells are taken from donor large bone and then they are planted into acceptor. Hence, in this way the destroyed stem cells due to high chemotherapy or radiotherapy doses have been restored. This can be done in 3 ways:-
1) By Autologous Transplant (In this the patient receive his own stem cells)
2) By Syngeneic Transplant (In this the patient receive hematopoietic stem cells from his twin)
3) By Allogeneic Transplants (In this the patient receive stem cells from any other then the two mentioned above)
The Bone Marrow Transplant is used during cancer treatment so as to make it possible to give high chemotherapy or radiotherapy doses to patient. While bone marrow transplant to minimize the adverse effects it is important that the stem cells of the donor and the acceptor should match as closely as possible and the body of the acceptor should accept those cells.
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